A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure. A gemstone is an object that can be cut into a flat shape for jewelry or other decorative purposes, including rock crystal (quartz), jadeite, and various types of opal. The term, the mineral is also used more broadly to include all of the materials that are not classified as pure elements such as coal and petroleum. The study of minerals mostly includes their chemical composition or physical properties such as hardness, color, crystal structure etc.
Minerals are generally formed by geological processes from inorganic precursors which have often been subject to water movements during metamorphic events for long periods of time. Sedimentary minerals form with __ rocks when other particles stick together; this process starts with small bits called clasts being broken off larger pieces of rock until they turn into sedimentary rocks like shale or sandstone. These sediments can later be compressed over millions of years and turned into something much harder like